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Previous research finds that…

  • Children aged between 3 and 5 years, and children who exhibit challenging behaviours and difficult temperaments are more likely than other children to be the recipients of corporal punishment by parents.
  • Boys are more likely to experience corporal punishment than girls.
  • Internationally, 37 countries have prohibited corporal punishment in all settings in legislation: Albania (2010); Austria (1989); Bulgaria (2000); Congo, Republic of (2010); Costa Rica (2008); Croatia (1998); Cyprus (1994); Denmark (1997); Finland (1983); Germany (2000); Greece (2006); Honduras (2013); Hungary (2004); Iceland (2003); Israel (2000); Kenya (2010); Latvia (1998); Liechtenstein (2008); Luxembourg (2008); Malta (2014); Netherlands (2007); New Zealand (2007); Norway (1987); Poland (2010); Portugal (2007); Republic of Moldova (2008); Romania (2004); South Sudan (2011); Spain (2007); Sweden (1979); Togo (2007); Tunisia (2010); Turkmenistan (2002); TYFR Macedonia (2013); Ukraine (2004); Uruguay (2007); and Venezuela (2007).
  • Within countries that have abolished corporal punishment, the process typically began by legislating against the use of corporal punishment in schools. This was followed by the removal of the parental defence of "lawful correction" or "reasonable chastisement" from relevant criminal codes and finally the introduction of explicit bans on the use of corporal punishment in relevant civil codes.

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